Science by PNBHS

General Science; Agriculture & Horticulture; Biology; Chemistry; Physics

10 Horticulture - 10HOR

The Year 10 Horticulture course is a half-year option subject.

There are no prerequisites to enter Year 10. Please note that it is an advantage to have done the Year 10 course if taking the subject in Year 11. This is an introductory course to Horticulture and the course is an extension of the Year 9 course.

The concept behind the course is to teach students ways to be self-sufficient on a small lifestyle block. Students learn about plant growth and propagation, growing vegetables, raising pet sheep and bee-keeping.

There is a practical (outdoor) component to the course. This subject will provide students with a good foundation for the Agriculture and Horticulture courses in the senior school.

Level One Science - 11SCX

This course consists of two External standards and one Internal standard. The students will be taught the content for three External standards – Mechanics (Physics), Acids and Bases (Chemistry) and Mammals as a Consumer (Biology), which sets students up for the Level 2 specialist Sciences (Physics, Chemistry and Biology). Your son’s teacher will decide which Internal will be done during the year. Subject cost $90

Level One Biology - 11BIO

In studying Biology, students will further develop their scientific investigative skills, and develop their understanding of:
(1) Human physiology and anatomy as well as organ systems.
(2) Homeostasis and how animals maintain a constant internal environment with an ever-changing external environment.
(3) Diversity, structure, function, and interrelationships of living organisms, and their interactions with the abiotic environment.
(4) Genetics and evolution, how the genetic code makes us look the way we do in essence linking phenotypic traits to genotypic traits.
(5) Biotechnology and how it impacts on our everyday lives.

Future career/university pathways from studying Biology include: Medical Sciences, Veterinary Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Food Engineering, Biochemistry, Aquaculture, Ecology and Agriculture, Genetics, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Sports Science to mention a few.

There are no prerequisites for Level 1 Biology, just a willingness to learn and a good attitude and course work grade. Students will have the option of selecting ONE internal and ONE external standard of their choice. Literacy credits are available in all the achievement standards we offer.

Internal Achievement Standards taught:

- 90925 Carry out a practical investigation in a biological context

- 90951 Investigate the biological impact on a NZ Ecosystem

- 90926 Report on a Biological issue

External Achievement Standards taught:

- 90927 Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to micro-organisms

- 90929 Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to a mammal as a consumer

Subject cost: $36 Number of credits: 8

Level One Horticulture - 11HOR

Young men are provided with a solid background into Horticulture and Agriculture in New Zealand.

The course has a practical work component and aims to develop an interest in Agriculture and Horticulture and the skills and knowledge to be useful workers in the industry. Students will learn both Agriculture and Horticulture content, and will be able to choose one (of two studied) Achievement Standards to sit in the November examinations. The course has one internal NCEA assessment.

Level One Physics - 11PHY

Physics is the branch of science in which people explore the physical world around them and seek to understand and describe the phenomena they encounter. Learning in Physics is inspired by a simple wonder at the way things are and a compelling curiosity about why they work the way they do. A study of Physics spans the limits of our universe - from the subatomic to the size of galaxies - and develops skills and knowledge that are useful in today's world and important in further learning. By studying Physics, students gain an understanding of interactions between parts of the physical world and of the ways in which they can be represented. Knowing about Physics enables people to understand a wide range of contemporary issues and challenges and potential technological solutions. Specifically, students will study aspects of Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Wave Behaviour and Modern Physics.

Level 1
Internal Assessment:
90935 Practical Physics Investigation (Physics 1.1) 4 credits

External Assessments:
90940 Demonstrate understanding of aspects of mechanics (Science 1.1) 4 credits OR
90937 Demonstrate understanding of aspects of electricity and magnetism (Physics 1.3) 4 credits

Subject Costs: $30

Level Two Biology - 12BIO

In studying Biology, students will further develop their scientific investigative skills, and develop their understanding of:
(1) Human physiology and anatomy as well as organ systems.
(2) Homeostasis and how animals maintain a constant internal environment with an ever-changing external environment.
(3) Ecological patterns and processes, illustrated as far as possible by investigating aspects of one or more local communities. This includes the identification of major groups of plants and animals with emphasis on New Zealand examples, whether indigenous or introduced. The importance of managing resources to ensure their sustainability.

(4) Physiology of organisms to illustrate different adaptations which, through evolution, exist to deal with the problems common to all life.
(5) The cell as a unit of living matter. The structure and function of a generalized plant and animal cell will be studied in this course and is an underlying theme throughout the year.
(6) Gene expression and variation in cells and organisms. The chemical structure of genes, nature of the genetic code, the significance of proteins, protein synthesis, phenotype determination, metabolic pathways, mutations, and the influence of the environment on phenotype expression.

Future career/university pathways from studying Biology include: Medical Sciences, Veterinary Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Food Engineering, Biochemistry, Aquaculture, Ecology and Agriculture, Genetics, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Sports Science to mention a few.

There are no prerequisites for Level 2 Biology, just a willingness to learn and a good attitude and course work grade. Literacy credits are available in all the achievement standards we offer.

Internal Achievement Standards taught:

- 91153 Carry out a practical investigation in a biological context

- 91155 Demonstrate understanding of plants or animals to their way of life

- 91158 Investigate a pattern in an ecological community, with supervision

External Achievement Standards taught:

- 91156 Demonstrate understanding of life process at a cellular level

- 91159 Demonstrate understanding of gene expression

Subject cost: $35 Number of credits: 19

Level Two Chemistry - 12CHE

This course focuses on Investigating and measuring the chemical and physical properties of a range of groups of substances, for example, acids and bases, oxidants and reductants, and selected organic and inorganic compounds. Upon completion of the course, students will be able to relate properties of matter to structure and bonding. They will develop an understanding of and use the fundamental concepts of chemistry (for example, equilibrium and thermochemical principles) to interpret observations, and apply knowledge of chemistry to explain aspects of the natural world and how chemistry is used in society to meet needs, resolve issues, and develop new technologies.

The course consists of three externally assessed Achievement Standards (91164, 91165 and 91166) worth a total of 13 credits and one internal assessment (91911) worth 3 credits. In addition, there is an optional internal (91163) worth a further 3 credits, which can be completed outside of the classroom.

Students wishing to enter into the level 2 course will need to have shown a good level of understanding of the key concepts present in Level 1 Science. This requires at least an Achieved in both an externally assessed and an internally assessed Science Achievement Standard and in unit tests held throughout the year.

Internal Achievement Standards taught
91911 Carry out an investigation into chemical species present in a sample using qualitative analysis
91163 Demonstrate understanding of the chemistry used in the development of a current technology

External Achievement Standards taught
91164 Demonstrate understanding of the nature of bonding, structure and energy changes
91165 Demonstrate understanding of the properties of selected organic compounds
91166 Demonstrate understanding of chemical reactivity

Subject Cost: $37

Level Two Horticulture - 12HOR

For students more interested in foreman or manger roles in the industry, Year 12 Horticulture will provide the knowledge required to be a decision maker. Students will be able to explain how management practices increase the productivity of a crop, and are expected to be able to justify choosing one option over the other. They will also learn about livestock growth and development, and how management practices on the farm improve the quality and quantity of livestock.

The course is made up of two Horticulture based, and two Agriculture based Achievement Standards. A total of 16 credits is available in the course.

Level Two Physics - 12PHY

Physics is the branch of science in which people explore the physical world around them and seek to understand and describe the phenomena they encounter. Learning in Physics is inspired by a simple wonder at the way things are and a compelling curiosity about why they work the way they do. A study of Physics spans the limits of our universe - from the subatomic to the size of galaxies - and develops skills and knowledge that are useful in today's world and important in further learning. By studying Physics, students gain an understanding of interactions between parts of the physical world and of the ways in which they can be represented. Knowing about Physics enables people to understand a wide range of contemporary issues and challenges and potential technological solutions. Specifically, students will study aspects of Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Wave Behaviour and Modern Physics.

Internal Assessment:
91172 Demonstrate understanding of Atomic and Nuclear Physics (Physics 2.5) - 3 credits

External Assessments:
91171 Demonstrate understanding of mechanics (Physics 2.4) - 6 credits
91173 Demonstrate understanding of aspects of electricity and electromagnetism (Physics 2.6) - 6 credits

Subject Costs: $30

Level Two Science - 12SCX

This is an academic course designed for students who want a Level 2 Science qualification. It is essential to understand that this course DOES NOT lead on to a Level 3 Science programme. Therefore, it is not suitable for students intending to study Science at University. Subject cost $90.
Students undertaking this course will complete five achievement standards from various Level 2 specialist Science subjects (four Internal standards and one External standard): Biology (external), Agriculture and Horticulture (internal), Physics (internal), Planet Earth and beyond (internal) and Biology (internal). Each standard is worth up to four credits.

This type of course is ideal for the Level 2 student who has selected his area of tertiary study, not specifically in Science, but wants to carry on with General Science to a higher level than Level 1. NB. Students cannot progress on to Level 3 Science.

Subject cost: $30.00

Level Three Agriculture - 13AGR

Year 13 Agriculture and Horticulture is primarily focused on AgriBusiness, and students are able to study in both the Horticulture and/or Agriculture context.

Students are expected to show an interest in the global and local current events to explain changes in production costs and management decisions. Students complete a case study assessment into a New Zealand primary product of their choice, looking into the production process, and manipulation of management practices and their impact on profitability.

Consideration of the environment, and application of abstract thought are required for student success at this level.

Level 3 Agriculture/Horticulture is an NCEA approved subject and can be used to meet University Entrance requirements

Recommended Prior Achievement Level
Students will need at least 12 English credits, and either 12 Horticulture credits, or if they are new students, some Economics or Business Studies background.

The ability to work independently on your own investigations is necessary.

Internally Assessed Achievement Standards:
91528 Investigation (4 credits)
91529 Production of a NZ primary product (6 credits)

Externally Assessed Achievement Standards:
91531 Manipulations of production process (4 credits)
91532 Impacts on the environment (5 credits)

Subject fee: $ 15

Level Three Biology - 13BIO

In studying biology, students will investigate, and develop their understanding of:
(1) Human physiology and anatomy as well as organ systems, and homeostasis.
(2) Homeostasis and how animals maintain a constant internal environment with an ever-changing external environment.
(3) Biotechnology and the implications in our everyday lives. Techniques we will study include: restriction enzymes, ligation, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing using gel electrophoresis, DNA fingerprinting, gene cloning using a vector (plasmid, bacteriophage), transgenesis, tissue culture, genome analysis.
(4) Ecology including animal behaviour and plant responses: Biological timing and orientation, cyclic responses of plants and animals (daily, lunar, annual cycles), biological clocks, tropisms and taxes, homing and migration.
(5) Biological investigation, conducting a practical biological fair-test investigation involving a plant or animal. Involves students focusing and planning, information gathering, processing and interpreting, and reporting.
(6) Speciation and Human Evolution which incorporates mutation and its role in producing variation, speciation, patterns of evolution (convergent, divergent, parallel), and adaptive radiation.

Future career/university pathways from studying Biology include: Medical Sciences, Veterinary Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Food Engineering, Biochemistry, Aquaculture, Ecology and Agriculture, Genetics, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Sports Science to mention a few.

There are no prerequisites for Level 3 Biology, just a willingness to learn and a good attitude and course work grade. Literacy credits are available in all the achievement standards we offer.

Internal Achievement Standards taught:

- 91601 Carry out a practical investigation in a biological context

- 91604 Demonstrate understanding of how an animal maintains a stable internal environment

- 91607 Demonstrate understanding of human manipulation of genetic transfer and its biological implications

External Achievement Standards taught:

- 91603 Demonstrate understanding of the responses of plants and animals to their external environment

- 91605 Demonstrate understanding of evolutionary processes leading to speciation

Subject cost: $35 Number of credits: 19

Level Three Chemistry - 13CHE

Chemists carry out reactions at what is known as the macroscopic level, and they think about reactions at the particulate or sub-microscopic level. They often use symbols to represent their observations. The aim of the level three course is to recognise that, for any substance, the properties and behaviours observed and measured are the result of the properties and behaviours of sub-microscopic particles that cannot be seen. More specifically, at the end of the level three course, students will be able to:

· Describe the composition and properties of matter and the energy involved as it undergoes change

· Explain how substances interrelate and their impact on society

· Make observations on the behaviour of substances and explain these using the fundamental concepts of chemistry

· Use the nature of particles to predict the properties and reactions of materials.

The course consists of three externally assessed Achievement Standards (91390, 91391 and 91392) worth 5 credits each and one internal assessed Achievement Standard (91388) worth 3 credits, giving a total of 18 credits. In addition there are two optional internals (91389, 91393) each worth 3 credits.

Students wishing to enter into the Level 3 Chemistry course will need to have shown a good level of understanding of the key concepts present in Level 2 Chemistry. This requires at least an Achieved in two externally assessed and one internally assessed Chemistry Achievement Standard.

Internal Achievement Standards taught
91393 Demonstrate understanding of oxidation-reduction processes (optional)
91388 Demonstrate understanding of spectroscopic data in chemistry (compulsory)
91389 Demonstrate understanding of chemical processes in the world around us (optional)
External Achievement Standards taught
91390 Demonstrate understanding of thermochemical principles and the properties of particles and substances
91391 Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds
91392 Demonstrate understanding of equilibrium principles in aqueous systems
Subject cost: $37

Level Three Horticulture - 13HOR

Year 13 Agriculture and Horticulture is primarily focused on Agribusiness, and students are able to study in both the Horticulture and/or Agriculture context.

Students are expected to show an interest in the global and local current events to explain changes in production costs and management decisions. Students complete a case study assessment into a New Zealand primary product of their choice, looking into the production process, and manipulation of management practices and their impact on profitability.

Consideration of the environment, and application of abstract thought are required for student success at this level.

Level 3 Agriculture/Horticulture is an NCEA approved subject and can be used to meet University Entrance requirements

Recommended Prior Achievement Level
Students will need at least 12 English credits, and either 12 Horticulture credits, or if they are new students, some Economics or Business Studies background.

The ability to work independently on your own investigations is necessary.

Internally Assessed Achievement Standards:
91528 Investigation (4 credits)
91529 Production of a NZ primary product (6 credits)
Externally Assessed Achievement Standards:
91531 Manipulations of production process (4 credits)
91532 Impacts on the environment (5 credits)

Subject fee: $ 15

Level Three Physics - 13PHY

Physics is the branch of science in which people explore the physical world around them and seek to understand and describe the phenomena they encounter. Learning in Physics is inspired by a simple wonder at the way things are and a compelling curiosity about why they work the way they do. A study of Physics spans the limits of our universe - from the subatomic to the size of galaxies - and develops skills and knowledge that are useful in today's world and important in further learning. By studying Physics, students gain an understanding of interactions between parts of the physical world and of the ways in which they can be represented. Knowing about Physics enables people to understand a wide range of contemporary issues and challenges and potential technological solutions. Specifically, students will study aspects of Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Wave Behaviour and Modern Physics.


Internal Assessment:
91525 Demonstrate understanding of Modern Physics (Physics 3.5) - 3 credits
External Assessments:
91523 Demonstrate understanding of waves systems (Physics 3.3) - 4 credits
91524 Demonstrate understanding of mechanical systems (Physics 3.4) - 6 credits
91526 Demonstrate understanding of electrical systems (Physics 3.6) - 6 credits

Subject Costs: $30